9/17

1. What does what I learned today mean to me as a language TEACHER?

I think having the knowledge about a language does not neccessarily equates to having the ability to teach the language. As a language teacher, we might be able to teach English in tradition ways (conversation/lectures/reading/breaking up the language into its vocabulary or grammer components and teaching each part in separate classes etc) or through rote learning. However what impressed on me deeply today is that these methods (maybe that is how my past teachers have taught) could render certain degree of benefits but it might not be the most productive for students.

From the ice breakers at the start of class today, I think it is important to create a learning atmosphere or enviroment that is comfortable for the student. If it is not a one-to-one class, it is strongly essential to have community building activities that could build up rapport among the students ( and between the teacher and the class) , regardless of how much the teacher wishes to get down to business and starts the curriculum.

The history of language learning and teaching also reminds me that language teaching can be traced through time. Although its purposes could differ from the needs of the modern language learner, but there is a systematic buildup of teaching methods and theories which are time tested. As an English tutor, I have unknowingly employed Grammer Translation, series and direct methods to teach my students. By having a more thorough understanding of these teaching methods helps me to identify their pros and cons and better ways to execute these methods.

2. What does what I learned today mean to me as a language LEARNER?

As a language learner, we tend to receive information from the teacher passively and are always attempting to adapt ourselves to meet the teacher's requirements. We seldom give second thoughts to the teacher's motivation for desgining the course in his way and tend to criticise mindlessly on whether the lesson is interesting, if the teacher is charismatic and the difficulty of the syllabus. I remembered taking a course with a couple of students from the teaching department and they were so different from the rest of the class by participating enthusisatically in discussions and are so dynamic in making group presentations or expressing their views. I think they understood our teacher's teaching motive and what is the best element of a great teaching and learning experience other than active participation on the learner's part?

Today's class not only helpes me to recollect the different teaching methods that my teachers might have employed in class but also enhances the fact that each course design has its motivations and by understanding the various teaching methods, the individual can enjoy productive learning in class and have the acumen in identifying the teacher's competency and well-preparedness.


9/24 “The Sun and the Moon”

The second week of class and we played an interesting warm-up activity. What is the best way to know the likes of your classmates other than letting them choose between the sun and the moon (two diverse options)? The game might be made up last minute but I thought it was quite fun. If I enjoy it, I guess my students (if I have any in the future) would enjoy it too.

We learnt about the history of language learning and teaching, whether it is Chomsky and his Cognitivism or Krashen and the designer methods all sound like Greek to me. I guess some getting used to the terms needed to be done as all my life I have sat behind the student’s desk and learnt without much pondering on the subject. Upon explanation, though I can vaguely apply some of the teaching methods to my learning experiences, some memorization would most probably be needed on my part to digest them.

However today’s lesson also points out the difference between learning and acquisition. The former is a beneficial shortcut for adults as they could be corrected easily whereas I used the latter in my English learning experience. I guess I must have tortured most of my friends when I insist that they learnt English through acquisition only, which is a misconception on my part. Besides having enough input, it is also essential for learners to have output even in language rich immersion environment. But I’m just wondering how do we correct the input for learners who have “fossilization”? That they can speak and understand English at intermediate level but their spoken English is full of grammatical errors. Do we interrupt and correct them immediately when an error occur or do we let them speak freely and try to correct obvious mistake after a limited conversation time?

Lastly, I thought the Affective Filter Hypothesis was so true. Personally, I am quite anxious and nervous when I have to speak to English native speakers because throughout my junior and senior high I was in the higher Chinese class and was surrounded by Mandarin-speaking classmates. However when I got to NCCU, I felt so foreign amongst my classmates in compulsory Chinese Department courses and it makes me so self-conscious when I am speaking Chinese as I was afraid they would pick out my accent. Anyway I attribute my diffidence in the languages to the hypothesis.



10/1

We discussed about chapter 1: Learners. Initially the terms ESP, EAP, EFL, ESL were quite baffling to me as I have never given much thought to the motivations and purposes of different English learners in their various cultural context. The distinctions are not that obvious as I tend to view the whole English learning context as a whole target language-learning community.

There is a presentation on Multiple Intelligence, motivation and EFL-ESL. I thought the presentation on MI was quite interesting and I did a test to find out my MI. MI changes the traditional notion of intelligence by showing that intelligences are based on various aspects. Therefore I think it is irresponsible for an educator/parent/anyone to comment that a child is smarter than another and that no matter how big the class is, a teacher should have various activities to cater to the different learning needs of students. This also reminds us that as an educator/parent, we should try to tap a child’s potential and nurture her according to her faculty. Also, for older students, it is nevertheless a great idea for them to understand their learning needs and devise appropriate studying strategies so as to induce a greater agency on their part. I thought it is a good idea too to remind myself to look through the studying strategies that would come in handy for my life-long study plan after I have left school. Although I must also add that my junior high teachers seemed to have exposed me to the concept of MI and self-study strategies, but I was too immature at that time to use it to my advantage.

Lastly, I’m trying to be accustomed to the idea of devising interesting and enriching activities for learning English. All along, I just have the stick-in–the-mud idea that learning English in the classroom is a passive progress, where the student undergoes numerous drills and endless exercises and tests to learn grammar, vocabulary and other essential writing skills. And the student’s capability in the writing would increase by leaps and bounds if at the same time he fell in love with reading. Just as in Woolf’s Orlando “For once the disease of reading has laid upon the system it weakens it so that it falls an easy prey to that other scourge that dwells in the inkpot and festers in the quill.” Although reading might be the best prescription for improving one’s language abilities but I guess it is not the most approachable remedy for non-native speakers. I have never thought of myself as uncreative and inflexible until I started taking this course and encountered difficulties in trying to devise activities that are interesting.






10/8 “I like you because…”


Today we started off with a nice warm-up activity that requires us to write down compliments for our classmates. I think this is a great activity that improves the bonding of the class as everyone enjoys being complimented and everyone is curious about what others think of them. I have never really given it a thought, but maybe it is true that people believe in compliments even if they know the compliments might not be really truthful. Anyway it tells us that little actions or stuff like this go a long way in boosting a student’s confidence and positive self image and that as teachers/educators, we should not be miserly with encouragements (though most Asians are more reserved with that) . As for me, I get some kind of memorabilia from class, which is not an everyday thing.

With regard to the Goldilocks story, I thought the other groups did a great job as they have some sort of design that involved the active participation of “students”. The atmosphere is light-hearted and enjoyable but I do agree with some classmates that we acted out the story more than teaching it to the target group--- 4-7 year old Chinese native speakers. Somehow our group didn’t give much thought to the story design and we just reenacted the story in a role-play. I think it reflects at least my perceptions of a classroom as a traditional and dreary setting that is difficult to have interactive activities and that under the tight curriculum that teachers are normally under, it just doesn’t seem possible to get the students to play out the roles. Moreover when the class is huge, with around thirty students, how to present the story with 30 students moving about in the class poses its challenges. It is albeit worth the attempt to make the learning atmosphere interesting.

For instance, from Prof Cheng’s reenactment, there are a few points taking note:

1. Modify the input with real life.

2. Getting the kids involved through actions.

3. Sandwich the Chinese translation with English. ( which I think is quite important and what I myself tend to forget by speaking too much in Chinese or in English)

4. Tiger and Angel the translator. Another character that not only grasps the kids’ attention, but also enable an English dialogue between the teacher and the tiger/translator.

When I teach young children, normally I would give priority to their emotional being and I try to let my student feel that I care about her, not only with regard to her academic learning. As nowadays, I think parents tend to focus too much on the children’s school results, neglecting the well-being and total development of the child. Moreover, I see kids being reprimanded for stuff such as not completing their horrendous amount of schoolwork with speed instead of more critical stuff like lousy attitude or rude behavior, which is often brushed off with the excuse of the stress these kids are under! I had a teacher who once said that the most important attribute of being an educator is that you have to care for a student out of your heart. Truly and sincerely because if the student is not cared for in school, how could the person have the capacity to love himself and care for others. I guess students could really sense what a teacher is getting at.


Actually with the Goldilocks presentation, I thought it was a good idea to “reward” the group that we voted as the best as I am curious about what the others thought was a good activity design. At our age, I think rewards and punishments might seem too childish and limiting to a person’s development, but when we look around us isn’t the world we are living in full of punishments and less of rewards? It depends on what we are trying to control, but at times rewards is really a good motivator especially when most of the time, sadly speaking the carrot is not in the lesson or the textbook.





10/15 Classroom personality

Today we start the class off with a discussion on what we think is a good teacher. Some of us think that a good teacher should be professional, even-handed and humorous, while others think that a good teacher should be one who truly cares about the student and not judge the student’s value from his grades. I think whether a teacher is good or not is a subjective issue but there are certain types of teacher that puts me off i.e. teachers who refuse to write recommendation letters for students and who care more about their promotion than the students’ future development.

The next question is do we put on a different, teacher-like persona when we are in front of a class or do we let our real personality emerge? I would prefer to show my real self to my students but I would don on the teacher’s mask on the first day of class to win the respect of my students and gain class control. However I do agree with Prof. Cheng that by looking at another perspective, as our teaching experience accumulates, the classroom personality would pass through to our real personality. I guess no matter how much I attempt to be myself; mainly the positive aspects of me would show its face to my students.

I was thinking about rapport and had personally experienced that good rapport between teachers and students was not to be taken for granted, especially so for the teacher. I had some experience of giving one-to-one tuition to young kids (age ranging from kindergarten to elementary) and it was quite daunting as young children were normally forced by their parents to have English tuition. Their parents’ motivation for learning English becomes their motivation. Either they have just changed to a bilingual school or they are having some trouble coping, and with my immature teaching methods, it only results in disrespectful behavior and teary-eyed children. Although, I really hope that they are not put off by the language or me. Besides, what I can do with the class seems to be pivoted on the whims and fancies of the paying parent (just as what the textbook has stated). As the students are L2 learners, majority of the teaching time involved the usage of L1 and I being transformed into a translating machine, which really degrade my esteem and role to the level of an instrument, and not a teacher.

There are definitely advantages of using L2 in class, of which I am working really hard to achieve. It definitely drives the point deep into me on providing sufficient, comprehensible and understandable input would be of real and meaningful use to the student. (Maybe my student and I have started on the wrong note, whenever I speak in L2, she would retort that she had no idea what I was saying.) Therefore, the using of L1 only becomes advantageous in explaining grammer rules. I thought Prof. Cheng proposed a good idea to teach classroom management rules in L2 on the first day of class. As the condition of my current tuition class is worsening, I can really sense that using mandarin is a trap that induces lesser input for the student in target language.

The demo in class on the Typical Interaction Pattern (Tstructure, Tsolicit, Srespond, Treact) highlights the same problem presented by the Early Audio-Lingual method. In the typical language classroom, teachers dominate and that TTT is almost half as much as STT. But how do we improve struc, sol and react? The answer is through group or pair work which reminds me why in Oral Training class we were always having discussions in groups.

Also I thought it is interesting that when we are teaching present continuous tense, we can try to get students to create stories with sentences such as

He is ing, and to contextualize the words and tenses they are using. Or for advanced or higher level learners, we can also put the activity into a context such as a pitcher running around the base. We can then play chips for the game, or expose students to the sport’s slang or jargon.






10/22 Taskfile Activities

Today is rather embarrassing actually because I am really weak at designing activities to explain English vocabulary or meaning. I think that I pick up English as a L2, but it was at an early age and I just pick it up along the way. I am sounding longwinded, but I just want to talk a bit about my background before I rack my brains for the presentation and the quiz. A couple of my friends and I had similar backgrounds. We only speak mandarin or dialects at home, but somehow along the way we manage to master and use English. The last time I touched grammar rules was like in elementary school, so my grammar is pretty weak.

Anyway how we learnt English at that time… my English teacher spoke to us in English and we understood her gradually and finally we comprehended everything. As for grammar, I remembered it was kind of rote learning especially at the end of elementary school, when we were bombarded with grammar exercises and we know what our mistakes were and we learnt (upon the teacher’s explanation). We did the exercises, wrote our compositions, and answered the comprehensions. We practiced grammar and vocabulary, enjoyed reading and being read to very much.

So I couldn’t recollect the activities that my teachers let me go through. When they explain the grammar, they just explain it simply. The TESOL activity design course puts me in another context that requires me to give more thought to teaching and activity design. Truthfully speaking, I am quite impressed with how the classmates design little teaching exercises. For Sam and Teresa, as I was being “taught” for their exercises, I was tremendously impressed with their flair for teaching, the professional air they exuded (which I’m making a wild guess is how the professional teachers at tuition centers teach). I like how they paced their content systematically and Teresa’s grasp of the grammar rules (which recapped my grammar knowledge).

The advice I have for myself is to speak slowly, don’t talk to the board, give more thought to the activity design (using ESA, check questions, input enforcement etc), have a dry run at home and simpler set-up.

I think other methods of teaching are quite efficient and plan to experiment them with my tuition kid. So summary of the main points below:

  • Explanation of word meanings

a) Draw pictures or use hand actions (body language/kinesthetic intelligence) to complement verbal explanation.

b) When using L1 to explain, try to explain in L2 first.

Gives student meaningful listening input at a level that is comprehensible.

Provides student with a chance to hear the English and let it make sense.

c) Give egs/sentences: Explain what the word means in target language. Give the example and then translate. (which I did to my student and I have to ignore her retorts for me to speak in Mandarin)

d) Use L1 to explain but not the critical word.

e) Simple explanations.(which tests the teacher’s knowledge of the language)

f) Elicit the knowledge from students, preferably. (like asking them “who am I” to draw out their response for “teacher”)

  • Explanation of grammar

a) Important for teachers to minimize preparation time.

b) Going to future: simpler timeline and explain the difference of “going to future” and “will future”.

c) Besides verbal explanation and example giving, try to have interaction with the class by adding visual or kinesthetic aids.

d) Get students to repeat and speak in complete sentences.

e) Ideal to have a story-set up for the grammer lesson. E.g. Lily’s lesson fulfils the ESA structure.

f) Getting students to discuss probable sentence composition for grammer lessons increase STT by letting them scaffold each other.

g) Input enhancement (new term of the day)

I. Involves using the same sentences presented in the story for students’ discussion.

II. Build up on the story’s theme/plot e.g. Halloween. Allow students to learn related vocabulary and the culture. SCT social cultural perspective.

III. Put the dialogues on the ppt slides

IV. Highlight the grammar in the slides.

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10/29 Something that people can argue till the cows go home

We had a quiz today and some presentations by our classmates. I learnt a lot about grammar teaching. Personally, I am rather weak and unsure about teaching grammar as I have returned most of the grammar rules to my teacher. That’s a Chinese way of saying I have clean forgotten the stuff my teacher has taught me. I try to understand why I have forgotten the grammar rules and I think it might be because I only did grammar exercises and drilling for grammar patterns. Meaning even if the teacher had explained before how and why the grammar patterns work, I only remember how to use it from the repeated practices.

So I always feel kind of guilty and terrified when I have to teach grammar and the whole experience I had in the TESOL class build up my fundamentals for approaching it. Something new for today: How to teach passive and active voice
There is actually a difference between the two that we tend to overlook. Passive voice emphasizes on the object (the doer is not important in the context) while active focuses on the subject/ doer. So we normally use the passive voice when we don’t wish to say who the doer is (to avoid revealing the agent when we don’t wish to lie/admit) or when we don’t know who the subject is. In terms of grammar teaching it is important to work some reason for the usage. In this case, passive voice is often used in history.

I enjoyed today’s presentations a lot, as Alice and Renee had worked in some activity design and creativity. For instance, Renee taught compound with participle using blind date as a subject. To secretly peek at sister’s diary successfully engaged us to listen to Renee’s reading. In Alice’s case, I think she is an adept and natural teacher who paces her lesson really well. She has the fun teacher personality. I thought “Find-the- Thief” activity was amusing and achieved the goal of activating students’ knowledge. For older students, I thought it would be great if students can innovate and come up with responses suitable for the role they are playing (using the grammar learnt).

Lastly, the concept of “I+One”. It means to provide comprehensible input and yet teach a bit more than what the students can cope with. I vividly remember this lesson because Prof. Cheng mentioned about the difficulty of drawing the line at what the student must learn and can learn. Such as allowing students from the English Department to enjoy greater flexibility in choosing their courses so those who may not enjoy literature for example, can choose less of the literature modules and take classes for other modules they are interested in.

Interestingly, in another class I took, the teacher mentioned about the fundamentals of English major. That the English department in Taiwan is different from that of native-speaking countries and students should have a strong foundation in English literature as the exposure is needed for us to have good English. In a way, the basis to have good English might be to like/understand the literature. I kind of agree because if one doesn’t enjoy reading literature, how well can the person understand/use the language? For example, some students from the education dept. tend to dislike lit. classes as they think literature is difficult and unimportant. This is really a dilemma for me on which side I should take because on the other hand, I can also understand that it might be the compulsory nature of these courses that put off people’s interest. Meaning whether it is literature or math, if it is way beyond a student’s capabilities, maybe we should adjust the standards?

Then again, it has been an Asian way of doing things i.e. to emphasize less on one’s subjectivity and try to overcome the weakness. Meaning since I might be weak in this, then I should expose myself more and overcome the difficulties along the way. For instance, in Singapore there has always been this on-going argument on how to teach Chinese so that students can like the language. To do away with memorization work or to teach it using English (I guess that is most probably grammar translation) would upset the Chinese “conservatives”. I support having compulsory lit. classes because they might bridge the gap between the standards of non-native and native students. However, I myself hate it when I am forced to do something I abhor. So there’s no answer for now.





11/12 Polar bears and goose eggs and global warming

The text that I have brought to class is an introduction to Virginia Woolf’s Orlando, and my target students are high school or college students. I chose this text because I am interested in how we can teach literature as what we have been doing is centered mostly on grammar/ vocabulary teaching. However I must admit the text is really too difficult. I thought Renee and Sam brought in some very nice text for teaching senior high students. Renee’s text is on Helen Keller whereas Sam’s text, which is our group’s chosen reading, is very much what my above title has covered.

The reading “Polar Bears Turning to Goose Eggs to Survive Warming” is a very rich text that allows a lot of creativity and innovation from the teacher. We have settled our study target as the vocabulary in the reading and the-ing grammar form. Firstly, we would put on a few minutes clip that is related to global warming. Basically, we would then let students skim through the text and make up their own article title in groups. This would enhance students’ global comprehension. Then we would create a flowchart for the students (flowchart creation), which would map out the main points of the article, showing the students the flow of the writer’s argument. Hopefully, it would be clearer for students understanding of various details in the reading. Moreover there would be blanks in the flowchart, where students have to actively read through the text and fill in the relevant grammar and vocabulary answers. The flowchart creation would be a active activity that not only clears up the various points in the article but also works in grammar and vocabulary. In a way, the flowchart manipulates the language to something visual and logical.

Then we would require the students to put up a role play where they will be divided into four main representatives namely, the scientists, the bears, the geese and the seals. These four groups of students will have to relate the pros and cons of polar bears eating goose eggs and the impact of global warming on them. For instance the geese group will have to arbitrate about the bears eating their eggs and though their population might not be threatened from the scientists’ point of view, somehow it is not to their benefit. Each group will think, present and argue their viewpoints with the teacher being the moderator. It will lead students in understanding and digesting the balances and consequences of the article.

The viewing of the clip or image of a polar bear standing on a melting ice block is part of schema building where we attempt to build up background knowledge. Without schema, the students’ reading would only be bottom-up. Schema makes reading easier to understand, more than just words but also trigger students’ past experience. The building of schema is important as every word a native speaker utters has specific experience and context, which mere memorization of vocabulary could not achieve. The involvement in the role play, elicits production and output, which even the silent guy in the group will receive scaffolding and notice the errors. The flowchart provides visual logic while the acting out of dialogue is visual, auditory and kinesthetic.

The activities that we brainstormed with Prof. Cheng allows me to experience and see the possibility of having a reading class that is different from the traditional, of which students are stimulated to think and process more. I think that should be the most precious part of education. But at the same time, grammar and vocabulary are the basis for these further stimulations.


11/26 Possesive Pronouns: mine, yours, his etc

The activity I have chosen is from Jill Hadfield’s book (《兒童英語文法活動》) that is published by Caves Educational Training in Chinese. My target students are non-native English elementary school learners (beginner level). I choose this activity on “Possesive Pronouns” because this is grammar form does not exist in chinese. Younger students tend to confuse it with the usage of my/your/his and the insertion of the correct form in a sentence.

The purpose of the activity seeks to incorporate the learning of possessive pronouns in a fun way through games. The class will be divided into groups. Each group will be given a “couple card”, which has a “possessions card” that belongs to the couple. For instance, Mr. and Mrs. Charm (wizard and witch) would have pictures of the witch’s pointed hat, magic broomstick, wand and a black cat on their list. 2 or more groups can be put together to compete with one another. The possession cards of these groups would be collected randomly and placed in a pile (facing downwards) on the middle of the table. Each student will take turns at flipping the card and the others who are playing the game would have to say “This is mine/theirs/hers/his!” This is a speaking activity that requires the student to produce input and it is playable even if the kids do not know the names of the items.

If I were to modify the activity and teach it to a class… Firstly I would design the cards with couples that we have gone through in our lessons or famous cartoon/story characters to help the kids to use nouns they have learnt, so they can say “The glass slipper belongs to Sleeping Beauty” etc. Similarly, with the “possession cards” I would incorporate nouns that they have already learnt and maybe add one/two unfamiliar nouns that I would explain in class beforehand. As the activity does not require students to learn the names on the possession cards, weaker students can also participate and enjoy the game without much difficulty.

Secondly, the activity would be an input enhancement of possessive pronouns of what the kids have just learnt in class. As most grammar learning involves drilling and written exercises, this activity would be great to let the students come up with verbal input.

Thirdly, this activity is also playable impromptu without much preparation. Even without the “couple/possession cards” or when the class is smaller, we can gather the items from the kids and use them as the games’ possessions. This is a relatively simple activity that allows student to have kinesthetic and visual stimulation in their learning and can increase verbal output from the students fairly easily.



12/03 Burton Holmes photographed the world!


Why are the chapters in our textbook arranged in the order of teaching reading, writing, speaking and listening? Is it because TESOL teachers put more focus on reading as the prerequisite of learning L2 and least emphasis on listening as it is carried out subconsciously throughout classes?

We went over the chapter on “Teaching listening” and “Using coursebooks”. For the former, we discussed about intensive and extensive listening and the advantages of using authentic material. Authentic speech is realistic for students as these real life materials are designed for native speakers. However we should be aware of students’ level as these authentic materials are more suitable for older and more advanced students.

Also, there are various sources of materials that are modified for students’ learning such as:
@learning website
@textbooks’ CDs modified for students
@English songs: Christmas songs (suitable near the holidays)

Taylor Swift (contemporary, clear diction, teenagerish stories, great MV, generally good English)
@rap music: Concerns over the content. Teacher must know what the song means. Especially slangs.

@films: 1.Consider the amount of time taken.
2. Make sure to exploit the film/language.

3. Show clips (but would your students be satisfied?)
4. Show 30 min long TV shows. Students can listen and yet have more time for vocab/grammar discussion. Videos are fun as there are not many opportunities one listens without input except on phone/ for announcements. Also with lower level students it would be better to involve their visual intelligence. Break down listening activities to something short so that students won’t be lazy.

5. Subtitles or not. For junior high students, Chinese subtitles would be needed. However it would be better to do something easier, so that Chinese subtitles would not be necessary.
@Find something that would be interesting for your students and you.

@Big news organizations: such as BBC podcasts/ world news for children would provide material that is manageable, authentic, contemporary and real world, which would expose students to different accents like the British dialect. If there’s no transcript, similar articles would be easily accessible.

@Prior reading activities can also prep listening.

Advantages of using coursebook:
Students
@Easy for students to revise or preview as everything is all in the coursebook.
@Students have something fixed which they know the teacher will cover.
Teachers

@Saves time for course planning

@Well-planned out. Many things that textbook writers can do and a teacher can’t manage. For instance, a group of writers around the world review, test and put a series of textbooks together.
@Corpus text. The textbooks are based on the corpus (where the computer can analyse the common words in the text). A list of difficult words that is suitable for the level with glosses.

Disadvantages of using coursebook:

@Texts might be too easy/difficult. Not challenging enough for good students.
@Text is not of- appropriate level, engaging, interesting activities.

This week we adapted the coursebook text on p151--- “He photographed the world!” . Some of us find the text not as engaging while others find it interesting. Although not all of us like the reading or the activities at the back, we have decided to retain the reading but add/replace certain activities. Firstly, we hope to engage in the students before they look at the text. So we are going to project the photos that Burton had taken 150 years ago and let them imagine what is it like to travel over the world at that time when technology is not that advanced. Then we mapped out the route/places that Burton had travelled to engage students in reading the text. Lastly, we would have a follow-up activity on the “Modern Day Burton” and let students think about and write down the different frontiers that they might wish to traverse such as outer space, Antarctica, undersea etc.


Something interesting to note: Pecking order. Maybe it’s a different culture or the schools that I have been are not that notorious. This word reminds me that whatever activities I wish to do with the class, I must remember the class dynamics as I would not want any of my students to be embarrassed or picked on because of my lesson.